Broad Application Areas of Cellulase Release Strong Market Demand
SummaryCellulase (β-1,4-glucan-4-glucanohydrolase) is a general term for a group of enzymes that degrade cellulose to produce glucose. Cellulase is a kind of complex enzyme, including C1 enzyme, CX enzyme and glucosidase and other components. Among them, C1 enzyme and CX enzyme can decompose cellulose into cellobiose, and glucosidase can decompose cellobiose into glucose, thereby providing nutrients for the growth and development of microorganisms.
- Author Name: Iva Colter
Cellulase (β-1,4-glucan-4-glucanohydrolase) is a general term for a group of enzymes that degrade cellulose to produce glucose. Cellulase is a kind of complex enzyme, including C1 enzyme, CX enzyme and glucosidase and other components. Among them, C1 enzyme and CX enzyme can decompose cellulose into cellobiose, and glucosidase can decompose cellobiose into glucose, thereby providing nutrients for the growth and development of microorganisms.
Classification of cellulase
- Endo-glucanase: It can break the β-1,4 glycosidic bond arbitrarily in the cellulase molecule.
- Exo-glucanase or cellobiase: It can sequentially cleave β-1,4 glycosidic bonds from the non-reducing end of fiber molecules to release cellobiose molecules.
- β-Glucosidase: It can decompose cellobiose and other low-molecular-weight cellodextrins into glucose.
When decomposing crystalline cellulose, no enzyme alone can cleave crystalline cellulose. These three enzymes can only complete the hydrolysis process if they co-exist and work together.
Cellulase is widely present in organisms in nature, and cellulase can be produced by fungi, bacteria, and animals. The fungi commonly used to produce cellulase include Trichoderma, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus, Penicillium, etc. Fungal cellulase has the characteristics of high yield and high activity, so the commonly used cellulase in the feed industry is mostly fungal cellulase. In recent years, benefiting from good market demand, global cellulase production has gradually increased.
The properties of cellulose
There are a wide range of cellulase sources, and the enzymatic properties of cellulase produced by different genus sources and different fermentation methods are different. The suitable reaction temperature for cellulase is 30°C to 45°C, and the optimal reaction temperature is 35°C to 37°C. In addition, cellulase has high thermal stability. Generally, the optimum temperature is 40℃～65℃, and the temperature stability range is 50～70℃, but this is affected by the pH value.
Mode of action of cellulose
Many researchers have put forward many different views on the process by which cellulase converts cellulose into glucose. At present, the generally accepted theory is that firstly, endoglucanase acts on the non-crystalline area of the microfibers to expose many ends for exonuclease. The cellobiohydrolase decomposes from the non-reducing ends to produce cellobiose. Then, the partially degraded cellulose is further decomposed by the synergistic effect of endoglucanase and exonuclease to generate oligosaccharides such as cellobiose and trisaccharide, and finally decomposed into glucose by the action of β-glucosidase.
The role of cellulose
- Cellulase can promote the dissolution of plant cell walls while improving the decomposition of cellulose and hemicellulose. And it can degrade the indigestible macromolecular polysaccharides, proteins and lipids into small molecular substances, which is conducive to the digestion and absorption of the animal's gastrointestinal tract.
- Cellulase preparations can activate the secretion of endogenous enzymes, supplement endogenous enzymes, and adjust endogenous enzymes to ensure normal digestion and absorption of animals.
- Eliminate anti-nutritional factors and promote biological growth. Hemicellulose and pectin will produce a viscous solution after being partially dissolved in water, which will increase the viscosity of digested products and cause obstacles to endogenous enzymes. The addition of cellulase can reduce viscosity, increase the diffusion of endogenous enzymes, increase the contact area between enzymes and nutrients, and promote good digestion of feed.
- Cellulase preparation is a multi-enzyme complex composed of protease, amylase, pectinase and cellulase. In this multi-enzyme complex system, the product of one enzyme can become the substrate of another enzyme, so that the digestion in the digestive tract can proceed smoothly. In other words, cellulase not only directly degrades cellulose and promotes its decomposition into low-molecular compounds that are easily digested and absorbed by animals, but also works with other enzymes to improve the decomposition and digestion of feed nutrients by dairy cows.