Femur Fracture type and Their Treatment
SummaryWe are writing this article about femur fracture. In this article, we have mention femur fracture type and their treatment.
In the human body, the femur, the thigh bone is one of the largest and strongest bones which extends from the hip joint all the way down to the knee joint. Being the strongest bone, a significantly potent force is required to break it.
Sometimes certain medical conditions can cause the bone to be worn out which increases the bone’s vulnerability to fracture. These conditions include tumors, osteoporosis, infection. Sometimes the use of certain bisphosphonate medications can also make the bones susceptible of fracture. These types of breaks or debilitating complications are referred to as pathologic femur fractures which is actually an advanced stage of malignancy in patients. Generally, these fractures can be divided into three main categories:
1.Proximal Femur Fractures
Proximal femur fractures also known as hip fractures include the uppermost part of the thigh bone directly adjacent to the joint of the hip. These fractures are further divided into sub-categories:
Femoral neck fractures: These fractures occur if the ball of the ball-and-socket joint is broken at the top of the femur.
Intertrochanteric hip fractures: These fractures occur just below the femoral neck and can be repaired easily as compared to femoral neck fractures.
2.Femoral Shaft Fractures
A femoral shaft fracture is a serious injury that generally occurs due to a fall from a great height or a high-speed car collision.
These fractures usually require surgical treatment. A wide range of implants and tools are available with orthopedic implant manufacturers for treating these fractures. Generally, the treatment includes the insertion of an intramedullary rod into the center of the thigh bone which helps in reconnecting the two ends which are fixed using screws above and below the fracture. However, this rod can remain in the bone forever but can be removed if required. The other technique is the application of plates and screws in order to secure the fracture.
External fixation for fractures:
External fixator remains outside the skin of the leg but for stabilizing the segments of bone, it penetrates the skin and assures the full immobility of the femur and better healing of the fracture. However, this temporary treatment is given in case of multiple injuries and when a longer surgery is not feasible.
3.Supracondylar Femur Fractures
A supracondylar femur fracture is also known as a distal femur. It occurs when the bone breaks just above the joint of the knee These fractures generally include the cartilage surface of the knee. These fractures are likely to occur in people with serious osteoporosis and who have undergone knee replacement surgery in the past. These fractures are a serious concern because these fractures hike up the possibility of knee arthritis in the future.
The treatment of a supracondylar femur fracture can vary according to the pattern and extent of the injury. So a cast or brace, an external fixator, an intramedullary rod, or the plates and screws can be used as per requirement.
However, the location of the fracture and the pattern and extent of the injury determines the treatment of a femur fracture. But it is viewed as a medical emergency so it needs immediate assessment and treatment in a hospital. Proximal femoral nail anti-rotation is considered the best device because it greatly helps in providing rotational and angular stability and allows early weight-bearing also.