Vitamin B3 protects skin cells from the effects of UV exposure, new research finds
Research presented today at EADV’s 29th Congress, EADV Virtual, shows hope that a form of vitamin B3 could protect skin cells from the effects of ultraviolet (UV) exposure: the main risk factor for non-melanoma skin cancers.1
Researchers in Italy isolated cells (human primary keratinocytes) from the skin of patients with non-melanoma skin cancers. These cells were treated with three different concentrations of nicotinamide (NAM), a form of vitamin B3, for 18, 24, and 48 hours and then exposed to UVB.
Results show that pre-treatment with 25µM of NAM 24 hours before UV irradiation protected the skin cells from the effects of UV-induced oxidative stress, including DNA damage. NAM enhanced DNA repair, demonstrated by decreased expression of the DNA repair enzyme OGG1. Furthermore, it decreased antioxidant expression and blocked local inflammation by showing decreased nitric oxide (NO) release and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and reduced iNOS protein expression.
Lara Camillo, a research student from the Dermatological Unit of AOU Maggiore della Carità, Novara, Italy says: “Our study indicates that increasing the consumption of vitamin B3, which is readily available in the daily diet, will protect the skin from some of the effects of UV exposure, potentially reducing the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancers. However, the protective effect of vitamin B3 is short-acting, so it should be consumed no later than 24 to 48 hours before sun exposure.”
Non-melanoma skin cancers are the most common malignancies in the Caucasian population and incidence is increasing worldwide. The main risk factor is UV radiation exposure, which damages the DNA, increases ROS production, activates local inflammation, and depletes cellular energy, leading to genomic instability and cell death.
About skin cancer
There are two main types of skin cancer: non-melanoma skin cancer (which includes basal cell skin cancer, squamous cell skin cancer and other rare types) and melanoma skin cancer. Basal and squamous cell cancers are most often found in areas exposed to the sun, such as the head, neck, and arms, but they also can occur elsewhere.2 They are very common but are usually very treatable.2 Melanoma is a type of skin cancer that develops when melanocytes (the cells that give the skin its tan or brown colour) start to grow out of control.3 Melanoma is much less common than some other types of skin cancers, but is more dangerous because it’s much more likely to spread to other parts of the body if not caught and treated early.3 Non-melanoma skin cancer is the 5th most commonly occurring cancer in men and women, with over 1 million diagnoses worldwide in 2018.4 Melanoma of the skin is the 19th most commonly occurring cancer in men and women, with nearly 300,000 new cases in 2018.4
Founded in 1987, EADV is the leading community to further the knowledge of health professionals and advocates in the field of dermatology and venereology. It is a non-profit organisation with over 7,000 members, across 113 different countries in the world, providing a valuable service for every type of dermato-venereologist professional. The EADV is committed to improving the quality of patient care, continuing medical education for all dermato-venereologists within Europe and beyond, and advocacy on behalf of the speciality and patients. To find out more visit https://www.eadv.org/.
About EADV Virtual:
This year’s Congress is a first in EADV’s history. EADV Virtual - New Frontiers in Dermatology and Venereology provides an exceptional opportunity for colleagues from around the world to explore the latest developments in science and patient care that are at the heart of the academy’s mission. The user experience is immersive and simple to follow. To find out more visit https://eadvvirtualcongress.org/
- Camillo L et al. THE ROLE OF NICOTINAMIDE IN PHOTOPROTECTION OF HUMAN PRIMARY KERATINOCYTES FROM OXIDATIVE STRESS DAMAGES UV-INDUCED. Late breaking abstract no 3109 EADV Virtual, 29-31 October 2020.
- org. Basal and Squamous Cell Skin Cancer. Available at: https://www.cancer.org/cancer/basal-and-squamous-cell-skin-cancer.html Accessed October 2020
- org. What is Melanoma. Available at: https://www.cancer.org/cancer/melanoma-skin-cancer/about/what-is-melanoma.html Accessed October 2020
- Skin Cancer Statistics. Available at: https://www.wcrf.org/dietandcancer/cancer-trends/skin-cancer-statistics Accessed October 2020