Regional Outlook: Ups and Down for the Electric Vehicle Traction Motor Market due to COVID-19
Pune, New York, USA, November 20 2020 (Wiredrelease) Research Dive –:Traction motor basically denote to a type of electric motor that is used to create a rotation torque on machines. Traction motors are utilized in electrically powered vehicles such as electric locomotives and multiple units running on electricity.
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Electric vehicles are not new to this world and with the rising technological advancements and enhanced concerns on pollution control, electric vehicles can be used extensively in the future. The essential element of electric vehicles that has the potential to replace internal combustion engines is an electric motor. The rapid development in the field of control techniques and Power electronics has paved way for several types of electric motors that are utilized in electric vehicles. Beyond this, electric motor designed for automotive usages consists of features like high power density, high starting torque, and good efficiency.
As far as the market scenario is concerned, according to a report published by Research Dive, the electric vehicle traction motor market was accounted for $1,910.7 million by 2018 and is predicted to generate revenue of $29,179.3 million by 2026 with a CAGR of 40.6% in the forecast period.
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What are the Various types of Electric Motors used in Electric Vehicles?
DC Series Motor
DC Series motor’s ability to generate high torque makes it an ideal option for applications related to traction. This type of motor was widely used for traction in the early 1900s. The prominent advantages of DC series motor are ability to withstand a spontaneous rise in load and speed control. Apart from this, the major demerit of DC series motor is high maintenance that is caused due to commutators and brushes. The DC series motors are popularly favoured by the Indian railways and it falls under the category of DC brushed motors.
Brushless DC Motors
This type of motor is similar to DC motors and has permanent magnets. This is known as brushless because it doesn’t consist of brush arrangement and commutator. The commutation is carried out electronically because these types of motors have low maintenance. BLDC motors comprises of traction features like high efficiency and high torque. Apart from this, BLDC motors are a perfect match for high power density design and are preferred for electric vehicle usages.
Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM)
This motor is analogous to BLDC motor and here the rotor contains permanent magnets. Moreover, these motors have traction factors like high efficiency and high power density. The difference between PMSM and BLDC is that BLDC consists of trapezoidal back EMF whereas PMSM favors sinusoidal back EMF.
PMSM is the best for applications in cars and buses and despite high cost of PMSM, it is competing with induction motors because of augmented efficiency than the latter. Moreover, PMSM is costlier than BLDC motors and most of the automotive industries utilize PMSM motors for their electric and hybrid vehicles.
Three Phase AC Induction Motors
The induction motors lack in high starting toque under fixed frequency operation and fixed voltage. However, this feature can be changed by utilizing several control techniques such as v/f or FOC methods. Through these methods, maximum torque is harnessed at the start of the motor and this is ideal for traction applications. The major demerit of an induction motor is that the control of the motor is rather difficult.
In case of permanent magnet motors, the magnet adds to the flux density B. Thus, regulating the value of B in an induction motors is easy as compared to the permanent magnet motors. Moreover, in induction motors the value of flux density can be altered by changing the (V/f) voltage and frequency based on torque requirements and helps in minimizing the losses and enhances efficiency.
All the above stated types of traction motors have their own unique features and applications. Apart from the four prominent motors, there are other small and medium types of traction motors as well.
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