Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Market Insights, Epidemiology and Market Forecast to 2026
Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India, March 3 2021 (Wiredrelease) Report Ocean Pvt Ltd –:Respiratory syncytial virus, or RSV, is a common respiratory virus that is very contagious and usually causes mild, cold- like symptoms. In maximum cases, people recover in a week or two, but RSV can be serious, especially for infants and older adults. For most people it is like common cold however, in several cases RSV can be lethal. RSV is confined to the respiratory tract and replicates in the nasopharynx. It then binds to the bronchiolar epithelium and causes cell death. The small airways become obstructed due to hypersecretion of mucous. In the United States, it is the most common underlying cause of bronchiolitis that is the major inflammation of the small airways in the lung and pneumonia or lung infection in children and a significant cause of respiratory illness in older individuals.
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Symptoms of RSV infection usually appear in stages and include runny nose; decrease in appetite; coughing; sneezing fever; wheezing. In very young infants with RSV, the only symptoms may be irritability, decreased activity, and breathing difficulties but can also cause more severe infections. There can also be signs of dehydration. RSV is highly contagious and it spreads through droplet transmission. When a person with the infection coughs or sneezes, secretions from their respiratory tract containing the virus are passed out into the air. People infected with RSV usually show symptoms within 4 to 6 day and infected individuals remain contagious for 3 to 8 days, but young children and those with a weakened immune system may still be able to pass it on for up to 4 weeks, even after their symptoms disappear.
Common respiratory viral infections (RVIs), typically caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza, parainfluenza and other viruses are an important cause of morbidity and mortality after solid organ transplant (SOT), particularly lungs and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Respiratory issues may be seen in more than 50% of patients after transplantation.
Researchers are working to develop RSV vaccines, but none are available yet. RSV is the reason for innumerable outpatient visits, hospitalizations and in severe cases, can result in death. The supportive care is the primary treatment option, while palivizumab is an option for high-risk infants and children, which can prevent infection and reduce hospitalization and length of stay at hospitals. The specific population for which ribavirin and palivizumab may be used for treatment is of immunocompromised patients. By now, no medication has been able to reduce mortality rate.
Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Epidemiology Insights
Report Ocean will focus on epidemiology segmentation at global level depending on the following characteristics:
Total Incidence Population of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Total Diagnosed Incidence Population of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Case-specific Diagnosed Prevalent Population of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Age-specific Diagnosed Prevalent Population of Respiratory Syncytial Virus
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a widespread pathogen of humans, due in part to the lack of long-term immunity after infection, making reinfection frequent. It infects 90% of children within the first 2 years of life and frequently reinfects older children and adults. It is the reason behind 45%–90% of bronchiolitis cases, 15%–35% cases of pneumonia, 6%–8% of croup, and is also a cause of many other respiratory disorders.
Most of the times, the severe cases of RSV infection occur among infants. As per the data retrieved from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), more than 57,000 hospitalizations, 500,000 emergency visits and 1.5 million outpatient clinic visits among children <5 years of age are attributed to RSV infections each year in the United States. While, the data shows an estimated 177,000 hospitalizations and 14,000 deaths in adult population associated with RSV infections annually.
For infants, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common infection with nearly all children affected by two years of age. Approximately 2.0% of all children are hospitalized due to respiratory tract disease, of which 50% to 90% are bronchiolitis patients and 5% to 40% are patients suffering from pneumonia. As per the study conducted in the year 2019, RSV infection in adults leads to respiratory infection for 0% to 77.9% of cases, influenza-like illness for 1.0% to 16.4% and community-acquired pneumonia for 1.3% to 13.5% cases.
As per the study conducted in 2017, RSV is a common infectious complication of transplantation, with an incidence of up to 12% in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients and 16% in solid organ transplant (SOT), particularly lungs.
Market for Respiratory Syncytial Virus
The market is accelerated by the increment observed in RSV cases. By the age of 2 years, almost 90% of children have been infected with RSV at least once, and half of these children may have had developed the condition twice. In late 2000s, the cost of treating RSV in the US was approximately $394 million for hospitalizations and $258 million for other medical expenses. However, in recent years it was found that only emergency rooms in hospitals costs approximately $202 million and total hospital charges of RSV was more than $2.6 billion.
The worldwide market for ALS can be segmented by treatment type and by end users.
Treatment Type Immune prophylaxis Supportive care Antiviral medication End Users Hospitals Physician Clinics Laboratories Home Care
Increasing incidence rate of respiratory infections along with rising incidences of chronic conditions worldwide. The support from Government bodies like the World Health Organization’s (WHO) BRaVe (Battle against Respiratory Viruses) initiative and on-going research to combat the RSV infection are the factors which drive the market. On the other hand, all the approved drugs target infants, are expensive, and have restricted access and there is lack of appropriate in-vitro facilities for conducting research studies for newer treatment alternatives. This may hamper the market growth to some extent.
Currently, there is no direct medication for RSV infection. In the treatment type segment, supportive care is the primary treatment option and dominate the market. It resolves the illness without complications in most children. However, high-risk infants and children and immunocompromised patients are treated with effective passive immune prophylaxis for RSV exists in the form of palivizumab.
On the basis of end user, hospitals held the largest share in the market and is expected to dominate the market over the forecast period owing to the round-the-clock monitoring required in the cases of severe infection. Globally, there are approximately 33 million annual cases of RSV in children under the age of 5 years, with at least 3.4 million cases where hospitalization is necessary.
In regional analysis, the North America dominates the market owing to the viral infection outbreaks in winter and spring and high infant population. Moreover, the region has advanced medical facilities with well-equipped laboratories and pathologies for infection diagnosis which include chest x-rays to check for bronchiolitis, skin monitoring, blood tests for white cell counts and other laboratory tests for checking the respiratory secretions. These factors are expected to drive market growth in the region through the forecast period and contribute significantly to the global market.
Next, Asia Pacific respiratory syncytial virus market is expected to grow over the forecast period owing to the high population and rapidly increasing infectious diseases. The developing healthcare systems and growing numbers of government initiatives makes China, India, Japan, and Malaysia the fastest-growing markets in Asia.
Companies across the globe are thoroughly working toward the development of new treatment therapies for RSV. Some of them are F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., AstraZeneca, Merck & Co., Inc., AbbVie, Inc., GlaxoSmithKline plc., ReViral Ltd, Gilead Sciences, Inc., Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. and other prominent players. While some of the companies have recently shifted their focus toward this indication, yet others like Valent and MedImmune are expected to create a significant influence on the market size during the forecast period.
VIRAZOLE developed by Valeant has approved in April, 2020 in several countries around the world, including the United States and Canada, for the treatment of hospitalized infants and young children with severe lower respiratory tract infections due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). It is administered as a small particle aerosol and treatment should be done in hospital only under medical guidance and care.
Synagis® (palivizumab) is a humanized monoclonal antibody produced by recombinant DNA technology in the company MedImmune and co-marketed by Abbott Laboratories, Inc. It is supplied as a sterile lyophilized product for reconstitution with sterile water for injection. It was approved in early 2000s by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
RRV521 (Sisunatovir) is being developed by ReViral and currently it is in phase II stage of development for the treatment of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections. It is an orally administered RSV Fusion inhibitor which has high potency against RSV A and RSV B strains and has favorable toxicity and tolerability profile.
Enanta Pharmaceuticals has selected EDP-938, a potent non-fusion inhibitor of both RSV-A and RSV-B activity, as its first development candidate for RSV. Top-line results of a Phase 2 challenge study of EDP-938 were announced in June 2019 showing EDP-938 achieved highly statistically significant reduction in viral load and resolution of clinical symptoms compared to placebo.
Nirsevimab under development in AstraZeneca is an extended half-life RSV F monoclonal antibody being developed for the prevention of LRTI caused by RSV. It is currently in phase II stage of development. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted Breakthrough Therapy Designation (BTD) for MEDI8897.
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