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Oncology Applications of Epigenetics in Healthcare Offering Treatment to Cancer

Epigenetics is the study of the functions of the genes affected by varying behaviors and environments without modifying the DNA sequence. Gene expression can be defined as when and how often proteins are developed within the genes. Epigenetic changes affect gene expression to make them off or on, while genetic changes take place. The environmental behaviors, including diet and exercise, cause epigenetic changes. It is easier to experience the connection between genes, behaviors, and the environment.

Epigenetics contributed $1,563.8 million in revenue in 2021, and it is expected to reach $6,460.5 million in 2030, progressing at a 17.1% growth rate. The epigenetic changes are reversible and take place throughout life. The epigenetics at the time of birth varies from the epigenetics during childhood or at old age.

Epigenetic changes can affect gene expression in various ways. It includes:

DNA Methylation: DNA methylation functions with the addition of a chemical group to DNA, this chemical is added at specific places on the DNA that further blocks the proteins attached to DNA for identifying the gene. Demethylation can result in the removal of this chemical from the DNA. Usually, methylation inactivates genes, and demethylation activates them.

Histone Modification: Histones can be defined as the DNA wraps around the proteins, and proteins cannot access these DNA wraps. Several genes wrapped around histones are inactive, while several which are not wrapped are active. Chemical groups can be removed or added to histones and change if a gene is wrapped or unwrapped.

Non-coding RNA: DNA gives coding instructions and non-coding of RNA; proteins are created by utilizing RNA coding. Non-coding RNA provides support in controlling gene expression by attaching coding RNA and several other proteins, that further breaks down the coding RNA to stop it from further creating proteins. Moreover, non-coding RNA also utilizes proteins to change histones and turn genes off or on.

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Last Updated: 09-Aug-2022