Shigella Vaccines Market 2020 Inclinations – by MSD Wellcome Trust Hilleman Laboratories Pvt., Novartis, and GlaxoSmithKline plc. etc
Shigella is a gram-negative pathogenic, facultative aerobic, nonmotile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria, which is genetically similar to E. coli. The shigella bacteria causes dysentery and diarrhea in humans with symptoms such as abdominal pain, fever, watery diarrhea, dehydration, vomiting, and convulsions. There are various types of shigella including S. flexneri, S. dysenteriae, S. sonnei, and S. boydii. Each species has different serotypes, which are classified on the basis of the structure of O-antigens repeats that are polysaccharides moiety of lipopolysaccharide, virulence factor comprised of toxic lipid. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in 2013, annual average occurrence of shigelloise in the U.S. was around 5 cases per 100,000 individuals. Furthermore, bacillary dysentery with severe epidemics are caused by S. dyenteriae by the production of shiga toxins. On the contrary, endemic form the disease is caused by the S. flexneri and S. sonnei. Moreover, bacillary dysentery comes with rectal infection, fever, and abdominal cramps.
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According to the World Health Organization (WHO), around 1 million deaths are caused due to Shigella infection annually. Moreover, the high occurrence rate has been noticed among children of age five years and below, travelers, and military personnel from industrialized economies. Shigella species have been for centuries and they represent a major threat to public health owing to non-availability of licensed vaccine and thus affecting overall Shigella vaccines market.
Moreover, developing vaccine against Shigella infections is very complicated as there is variety of shigella species and their serotypes. Moreover, there is constant deletion and acquisition of genes mediated by mobile genetic elements including integrons, insertion sequences, plasmids, etc. These modifications work as foundation for novel antibiotic-resistant strains generation, which leads to the formation of novel shigella serotype variants. In 2017, the CDC issued a warning to physicians and public health officials in the U.S. by stating that the recent strains of shigella bacteria exhibits reduce susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, which is one of the critical antibiotics recommended by the WHO for the treatment of shigellosis.
Around the world, S. flexneri is the most frequent species occurred accounting for the most cases in emerging economies. S. sonnei is highly prevalent in Brazil, China, Vietnam, and Bangladesh, owing to rapid industrialization in these economies. The primary prevention of shigella is based on the universal provision of portable sanitation and water methods along with personal and food hygiene. However, a low cost and effective vaccine would accelerate disease reduction across the globe.
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Joint ventures and collaborations of major players to develop and commercialize the vaccine are expected to propel the global shigella vaccines market in near future
Key players in the market are focused on joint ventures and partnership to develop and commercialize shigella vaccine, which is expected to drive growth of the global Shigella vaccines market. For instance, in March 2017, Hilleman Laboratories, a non-profit organization established a joint venture partnership with Merck & Co., to develop shigella vaccine. Moreover, Wellcome Trust entered into an agreement with National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Disease (NICED) for the development and commercialization of vaccines against Shigella by 2024. In June 2016, Immuron- an Australian biopharmaceutical company, entered into an agreement to produce Shigella vaccine with the U.S Army’s biomedical research lab-Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR).
Moreover, key players are focused on collaboration activities to gain competitive edge in the market. For instance, in January 2017, Prokarium and Probiomed entered into collaboration to manufacture orally-administrated vaccine to prevent diarrhea. The new vaccine is expected to be manufactured as a part of two-year collaboration having thermostable capabilities for a longer period. The new vaccine is expected to be delivered to the people living in the remote areas. Thermostable vaccine, which is manufactured around one third of the price of the conventional injectable vaccines, is expected to drive growth of the global shigella vaccines market.
The new research trial drives the global shigella vaccines market
In August 2017, the University Of Maryland School Of Medicine (UM SOM) received US$ 2.47 million grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) to develop vaccine against shigella and Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), which is indicated for diarrhea. The researchers in the UM SOM’s Center for Vaccine Development (CVD) have developed Shigella-ETEC prototype vaccine, which has been tested in animals successfully. Moreover, the latest funding helps to translate prototype to a human vaccine for Phase 1 clinical trials.
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The key players present in the global shigella vaccines market include MSD Wellcome Trust Hilleman Laboratories Pvt. Ltd., Novartis (Novartis Vaccines Institute for Global Health), and GlaxoSmithKline plc.
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